The synthesis of leukotrienes (LT) and their interaction with the receptors relates to the pathogenesis of asthma (characterized by the presence of inflammation), and manifests itself in smooth muscle contraction and swelling of the bronchial mucosa, changes in cell activity, including increased migration levels of eosinophils in the lung tissue.
Akolat ® – competitive, highly selective and potent antagonist peptide receptors of leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 – components of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis. Akolat ® acts as an anti-inflammatory agent, reducing the effect of inflammatory mediators.
Akolat ® equally prevent bronchospasm caused by all three peptide leukotrienes (leukotrienes C4, D4 and E4).
Studies in animals have shown that Akolat ® effectively prevents the called leukotrienes increase the vascular permeability, leading to edema, and caused by leukotrienes increase eosinophil levels in the pulmonary tissues.
it is shown that Akolat ® interacts only with receptors of leukotrienes and has no effect on prostaglandin, thromboxane, cholinergic and histaminic receptors.
Akolat ® reduces cellular and noncellular components of inflammation in the airways caused by antigenic provocation, followed by bronchial lavage after 48 hours, reduces the rise of omnadren 250 cycle basophils, lymphocytes and histamine release and reduces stimulated superoxide production by alveolar macrophages.
Akolat ® attenuated increasing after challenge with inhaled allergen bronchial hyperreactivity <a href=”http://steroids-for-sale.me/substance/mibolerone/” title=”mibolerone”>mibolerone</a> and bronchoconstriction induced by platelet-activating factor. In the future, the sensitivity to methacholine decreased Propafenone Akolat drug ® at a dose of 20 mg twice a day.
On the background of long-term use of the drug Akolat ® was demonstrated sustained improvement in lung function compared to the beginning of treatment, even against the background of the residual omnadren 250 cycle plasma concentrations.
Application drug Akolat ® in children aged 5 to 11 years (inclusive) at a dose of 10 mg 2 times a day significantly improves lung function (FEV 1, morning and evening PEF, frequency of administration Β 2agonists) compared with placebo. This improvement was maintained or increased when receiving 10 mg Akolat ® 2 times a day for 1 year.
It was found a dose-dependent inhibition of bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled leukotriene D4. Patients suffering from bronchial asthma, approximately 10 times more sensitive to the bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled leukotriene D4.
A one-time admission Akolat drug ® allows patients with asthma inhaled 100 times more leukotriene D4 and provides protection from 12 to 24 hours.
Akolat ® inhibits bronchoconstriction caused by several kinds of provocations, such as sulfurdioksidom, exercise, cold air. Akolat ® attenuates the early and late phase inflammatory reaction caused by various antigens, such as plants, animal dander, ragweed and mixed antigens.
Akolat ® eases asthma symptoms (reducing daytime and nighttime asthma symptoms), improves lung function, reduces the need for admission beta-agonists, and reduces the frequency of exacerbations of the disease.
The initial improvement in asthma symptoms occur during the first weeks, and sometimes the first days of Akolat drug ® .
Akolat ® ingested and, therefore, may be suitable for the reception of patients who have difficulty using pharmaceuticals in aerosol form.
After oral administration, rapidly absorbed, but not fully, meal rich in fat and protein reduces the bioavailability of 40%. TC max -3 hours. The value of Css in plasma is proportional to the dose and predictable on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose. Contact proteins (albumin) – 99%. Cumulation – low.
Extensively metabolized in the liver to inactive metabolites. T 1/2 . – 10 hours is derived from the kidneys by 10% through the intestines – 89%; partially breast milk, in the form of metabolites. omnadren 250 cycle is not detected in urine. Metabolites determined in plasma were 90 times less active than omnadren 250 cycle activity in standard tests in vitro .
Pharmacokinetics of omnadren 250 cycle in adolescents and adults suffering from asthma, was similar to the pharmacokinetics in healthy adult males. After correcting for body weight is observed strong differences between the pharmacokinetics of omnadren 250 cycle in both men and women. Elderly patients and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, C max and AUC increased by 2 times.
Prevention of asthma attacks and supporting basic therapy of bronchial asthma.
Hypersensitivity to the drug Akolat ® or its ingredients.
Children under 7 years old.
Violations of the liver, including cirrhosis of the liver.
Galactose intolerance, lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption (product contains lactose).
Elderly patients (over 65 years) due to insufficient data on clinical use.
Pregnancy and lactation The
safety of the drug Akolat ® women during pregnancy has not been established.
Use of the drug during pregnancy is possible only when the intended benefits to the mother while taking the drug outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
omnadren 250 cycle is excreted in breast milk. Akolat ® should not be administered to nursing mothers.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Akolat ® is indicated for the prevention of asthma attacks and therefore should be taken long-term. Adults and children over 12 years of Inside of 20 mg twice a day. Usual maintenance dose is well: 20 mg twice daily. Do not exceed the recommended dose. Receiving more high doses of the drug may be associated with increased levels of one or more liver enzymes and the development of hepatotoxicity.Akolat ® should not be taken concurrently with food, as food reduces the bioavailability of omnadren 250 cycle. Children from 7 to 11 years (inclusive) is recommended to begin treatment with a dose of 10 mg twice daily. The recommended maintenance dose is 10 mg twice daily. Elderly patients clearance omnadren 250 cycle in elderly (65 years) is significantly reduced, so that C max and AUC approximately two times more than in young people. However, cumulation of omnadren 250 cycle in the elderly is not happening. In applying the drug Akolat ® in elderly patients, a dose of 20 mg twice a day, no increase in the overall incidence of adverse events. Clinical experience with Akolata ® in elderly patients (over 65 years) is limited, and therefore caution is advised when administering the drug of this group of patients. Patients with renal impairment No dose adjustment is required in patients with impaired renal function.
Side effects are classified according to organ system and development of frequency: very common (> 10%), common (≥1% of up to <10%), rarely (from ≥ 0.1% to <1%), rarely (from ≥ . 0.01% to <0.1%), very rare (<0.01%)
below listed symptoms have been observed during treatment Akolat ® . General: very often – infection often – the weakness of the gastro-intestinal system: often – nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. liver and biliary ways: often – increased transaminases levels infrequently – hyperbilirubinemia without elevated liver enzymes rarely – symptomatic hepatitis with and without hyperbilirubinemia , very rarely – liver failure, fulminant . hepatitis Musculoskeletal system: often – myalgia, rarely – arthralgia central and peripheral nervous systems: common – headacherarely – insomnia Skin: often – rash, rarely – itching, hives, swelling, rarely – vesicular rash immune system: infrequent – reaction hypersensitivity rarely – angioedema Blood and lymphatic system: rarely – bruising bruises, bleeding, including hypermenorrhea, thrombocytopenia, rarely – agranulocytosis.
These symptoms usually resolve after discontinuation of therapy. Marked while taking the drug Akolat ® headaches and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract usually were moderate and did not require discontinuation of therapy.
There was an increase in the frequency of infections in elderly patients treated with Akolat ® (7.8% vs 1.4%). Infection usually is mild, mostly affect the respiratory tract and did not require discontinuation of therapy.
There have been isolated reports of cases of drug overdose Akolat ® in humans. No significant symptoms are not observed. In case of overdose should be carried out maintenance therapy. Perhaps gastric lavage.
INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER MEDICINES AND OTHER DRUG INTERACTIONS
Akolat ® can be used in conjunction with other types of medication used to treat allergies and asthma. For example, Akolat ® used in conjunction with inhaled corticosteroids, inhaled and oral therapy, bronchodilators, antibiotics and antihistamines without evidence of adverse interaction.
Akolat ® can be used concurrently with oral contraceptives without adverse interaction.
Reception Akolat drug ® simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid ( “aspirin” 650 mg 4 times daily), may lead to increased levels of omnadren 250 cycle in the plasma by about 45%.
receiving Akolat preparation ® simultaneously with erythromycin can reduce the level of omnadren 250 cycle in the plasma by about 40%.
clinical trials reception Akolat preparation ® simultaneously with theophylline It resulted in a decrease in plasma level of omnadren 250 cycle by approximately 30% with no effect on plasma levels of theophylline.However, during post-marketing studies, were noted rare cases improve patients levels of theophylline when concomitantly with drug Akolat ®. The drug Akolat ® concurrently with terfenadine reduces the AUC for omnadren 250 cycle is 54%, but without affecting the level of terfenadine in plasma. The reception Akolat drug ® concurrently with warfarin results in an increase in maximum prothrombin time by approximately 35%. It is therefore recommended to monitor the prothrombin time if Akolat ® is used concurrently with warfarin. Obviously, this interaction is the result of omnadren 250 cycle isozyme inhibiting cytochrome P450 2C9. Smokers may increase the clearance of omnadren 250 cycle by approximately 20%.
To get the effect of treatment, Akolat ® must be taken regularly, even if the asthma symptoms do not bother. Typically, therapy with Akolat ® should be continued during exacerbations of asthma.
The drug Akolat ® does not provide for a reduction receiving steroid glyukokortikosteriodov.
Just as inhaled glucocorticosteroids and disodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium, Akolat ® is not used for the relief of bronchospasm in acute asthma attacks .
There should be no abrupt withdrawal of inhaled or oral corticosteroids in the transition to drug therapy Akolat ® .
Use of the drug Akolat ® has not been studied in the treatment of intermittent or unstable asthma.
at the reception, preparation Akolat ® celebrated cases of eosinophilic conditions, including Churg-Strauss syndrome, eosinophilic pneumonia. Manifestations may relate to different organs and systems, including the possible occurrence of vasculitis, the deterioration of pulmonary function, cardiac complications or neuropathy. It is not possible to confirm or reject a causal relationship to drug intake Akolat ® .With the development of eosinophilic condition, or Churg-Strauss syndrome should stop taking the drug Akolat ® . Subsequently, should not reopen treatment with Akolat ® and take Akolat ® in order to establish a causal link with advanced eosinophilia. During therapy with Akolat ® may increase serum transaminase levels. Typically, these events are of passing nature and are asymptomatic, but may be early symptoms of hepatotoxicity, and in very rare cases associated with more severe hepatocellular disorders, fulminant hepatitis and liver failure. During post-marketing studies were very rare reports of acute liver dysfunction, which is not preceded by clinical symptoms or signs of dysfunction.
In the event of clinical signs or symptoms suggestive of liver dysfunction (eg, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, pain in the right the upper quadrant of the abdomen, fatigue, lethargy, apathy, flu-like symptoms, an increase in the liver, pruritus and jaundice), the drug should be discontinued. It is recommended to immediately determine the level of serum transaminases, in particular serum ALT. Doctors may take into account the values obtained during routine examinations of liver enzymes. Periodic monitoring of serum transaminases does not prevent the occurrence of severe hepatic impairment, but timely detection of liver dysfunction caused by drug intake, in addition to the immediate abolition of the drug can improve the patient’s condition. If in the course of studies of the liver symptoms of hepatotoxicity identified, you should immediately stop taking the drug. Patients who Akolat ® was canceled because of hepatotoxicity, the development of which was not related to any other reason, the re-appointment of the drug Akolat® is contraindicated.
Effects on ability to drive and use other mechanisms
There is no information that Akolat ® leads to deterioration of these activities.
However, when driving vehicles and classes of potentially hazardous activities that require high concentration and psychomotor speed reactions, it should be noted that when using the drug can experience headaches, insomnia. buy anabolic steroids online bruce lee’s workout anabolic steroids online uk